Smoking imagery on the online video sharing site YouTube is prolific and easily accessed. However, no studies have examined how this content changes across time.
We studied the primary message and genre of YouTube videos about smoking across two time periods. Eliminating duplicates, videos were coded for time period, overall message, genre, and brand mentions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Videos portraying smoking positively far outnumbered smoking-negative videos in both samples, increasing as a percentage of total views across the time period. Fifty-eight percent of videos in the second sample were new. Marlboro was the most frequently mentioned brand.
Videos portraying smoking positively predominate on YouTube, and this pattern persists across time. Tobacco control advocates could use YouTube more effectively to counterbalance prosmoking messages. While cigarette advertising is Sexy smoking teens com in traditional mainstream media, such as television and radio, sites such as YouTube, with their consumer-generated media content, remain largely unregulated Ciolli, Children access these types of sites and make up a large part of total users Quantcast audience profile, Freeman and Chapman surveyed YouTube tobacco content in and found that smoking imagery was prolific and accessible.
However, no previous studies have explored whether this content changes rapidly or stays relatively stable across time.
This study builds on earlier work by examining the overall message and genre of YouTube videos related to cigarette smoking retrieved across two time periods. Smoking rates among teens remain unacceptably high. Each day in the United States, approximately 3, young people between the ages of 12 and 17 years try cigarette smoking and an estimated 1, become daily smokers CDC. It is reasonable to Sexy smoking teens com that similar associations may exist for Internet viewing.
Interactive sites like YouTube are part of the new wave of Internet use, known as Web 2. Anyone with an Internet connection can participate, and anyone can upload video clips to YouTube. Posting is relatively anonymous.
To register and post, users must provide a user name, state, zip code, gender, and birth date Create an account, In addition to consumer-generated videos, the site also features clips from professionally produced movies, sports, and music. Advertising is also present, tailored to whatever the viewer is watching.
Banner ads may also run at the bottom or top of the screen with related content. In Marchnearly 5.
The average user spent As of May 20,20 hr of new video is uploaded to YouTube each minute, totaling 28, hr of content added daily to YouTube Junee, YouTube does not, however, allow all types of videos to be posted. YouTube community guidelines exclude pornography or sexually explicit content. In addition, Sexy smoking teens com are not to post videos showing things like animal abuse, drug abuse, underage drinking or smoking, gratuitous violence, shock videos, hate speech, or bomb making YouTube community guidelines, Users are allowed to flag videos that contain inappropriate content, which are then reviewed by YouTube staff and removed if deemed inappropriate.
Repeated postings of inappropriate videos by the same user can lead to account termination. However, there appears to be no independent check on age, with the system apparently relying on users to input accurate date of birth Create an account, We chose these time periods to allow us to determine how much change occurred during an approximately 2-month interval.
Each term was searched twice, once by relevance and once by view count. Relevance was chosen because that is the default search when topics are entered into the search engine. We chose view count to include the most popular videos in our sample. For each search and type of search, we viewed and catalogued the top 20 videos, for a total of videos. Once the instrument was developed, five videos not in our sample were then coded by the first author and a research assistant, and their coding was reviewed by the senior author.
Videos in the July sample were then viewed and coded by both researchers, working independently. Based on this level of agreement and the fact that the coding required minimal interpretive decision making, the full May sample was not Sexy smoking teens com.
Each video in the sample was watched in its entirety. Videos that contained no smoking references or imagery, or were in a language other than English, were excluded. Videos that appeared in the sample more than once and appeared to be identical in all respects, including name of the poster and view count, were considered one video for this analysis.
Sexy smoking teens com this process, 59 videos remained in the May sample and 65 videos in the July sample. Videos were classified by whether they showed positive, neutral, or negative smoking imagery, using a taxonomy adapted from Freeman and Chapman Videos were considered negative if they contained a message that smoking cigarettes is dangerous and undesirable or that smokers should quit. Videos were considered neutral if smoking was unimportant to the video and neither portrayed it positively or negatively.
ENDS videos were considered positive smoking videos. Videos were further sorted by genre after identifying recurrent themes. Definitions were developed for each genre to assure consistency in assessment. The videos were also sorted by whether they contained a Sexy smoking teens com brand reference, and if so, the brand was recorded.
A video was considered to have a brand reference if a brand name was either visually apparent or if the name was verbalized in the video. Of 59 videos that met inclusion criteria in the May sample, 10 Together these 10 videos had been Sexy smoking teens com a total of 1, times, accounting for 6. Forty-eight videos contained positive smoking messages, comprising Collectively, these 48 videos had Sexy smoking teens com viewed 24, times, accounting for One video contained a neutral message and had been viewed 1, times, accounting for 5.
These videos had been viewed collectively 1, times, accounting for 3. Two videos contained a neutral message and had been viewed 1, times, accounting for 4. Twenty-seven videos appeared in both May and July samples.
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Of videos featuring antismoking content, professionally produced tobacco control videos were the most popular and were viewed the Sexy smoking teens com often, followed by homemade negative imagery Table 2.
The professionally produced videos were high-impact videos that graphically showed the disease effects of smoking MisterTrimble, ; ZerlinTV, In May, that video had been viewedtimes; by July, view count had increased to , a How to quit monologues dropped from In May, the most popular video in that genre, seentimes, was a video that advised that quitting was possible using a two-pronged approach based on faith and eliminating acidity from the body Hitturkey24, However, by July, the most popular quitting video, seentimes, was a video by a self-help author giving smoking cessation advice while promoting his books and self-help tools Ollys, Total Sexy smoking teens com in sample, including negative, positive, and neutral videos: Total view counts in sample, including negative, positive, and neutral videos: Videos portraying smoking in a positive light Table 3 were more common and highly viewed than those depicting smoking negatively.
In May, the ratio of the view counts of antismoking videos to videos that promoted smoking was almost 1: One of the most popular music videos in the May sample, viewed over 2.
Cigarettes were also portrayed as a friend in several songs. The most popular video in both May and July was the song Paparazziby Lady Gaga, viewed almost 4 million times by July. Within the Sexy smoking teens com tricks genre, one video accounted for more than half of total view counts in both May and July.
In this video, Criss Angel, a well-known magician, smokes while he performs sleight of hand magic tricks with cigarettes as props. While he expertly smokes, he tells his audience that he is not a smoker and that they should not take up smoking; however, he appears to be enjoying smoking, and his trick only works if the cigarette is lit; thus, his actions belie his words Amixtika, Other videos in the magic genre showed cigarettes similarly as a prop that could be used to perform amazing tricks.
Smoking fetish videos accounted for a significant percentage of the positive videos in the sample These primarily showed women smoking seductively; several directed viewers to other Web sites for more explicitly sexual content Clip, ; Doofman45, ; IsabelleEvans, Many videos portraying smoking positively also referenced a specific brand of cigarettes Table 4.
While no antismoking videos Sexy smoking teens com brands, 20 In the May sample, there were two videos, out of a total of four in the genre, that promoted ENDS and also mentioned a brand, with a total view count of 93, By July, five out of five ENDS promotion videos mentioned a brand, with a Sexy smoking teens com view count of , a nearly fourfold increase.
In these videos, ENDS were promoted as healthier alternatives to smoking tobacco. Our study has Sexy smoking teens com. YouTube is always rapidly changing, and our sample captured only a portion of material available during two timeframes, albeit material most likely to be viewed first if our search terms were entered.
There were approximatelytotal hits probably many duplicative from which samples were selected.
The videos we viewed may not represent the full range of negative and positive smoking videos on YouTube. In coding the videos, we coded vintage commercials as positive because they typically show smoking as fun, desirable, etc. Other search terms might have retrieved a different set of videos.
In future studies, a wider variety of terms could be searched across more timepoints. Although we were able to retrieve the view counts of each video in the sample, there is no way of knowing how many unique viewers this number represents.