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White parents black baby genetics

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I applied the same analysis to infants of Black parents and infants with a Black mother and White father.

Not listing a father on the birth certificate had a strong association with outcomes, which might be a source of bias in existing data and a marker for identifying infants at risk. Despite great improvement in birth outcomes in the United States, significant and continuing differences persist across racial and ethnic groups.

The low-birthweight LBW; defined as a birthweight less than g rate of non-Hispanic Black infants has been steadily nearly double that of non-Hispanic White infants. These disparities are believed to result from complex interactions among genetic variations, social and environmental factors, and specific health behaviors.

Many studies have shown different patterns in socioeconomic characteristics between intermarriage and endogamous marriage in the United States. Status exchange hypothesizes that in a marriage market framework, minority men marry less-desired White women e. The second hypothesis, in-group preference, simply suggests that people prefer members from their own group, and thus, intermarriage is the less desirable scenario.

According to the National Center for Health Statistics NCHS natality files, between andthe proportion of infants born to 1 Black and 1 White parent increased gradually from 0. To date, only a few studies have examined birth outcomes of interracial infants, and all of these studies focused on Black and White mixed-race infants.

Together they found that mixed-race couples differed significantly with respect to their sociodemographic characteristics from the endogamous couples. After control for those variables, biracial infants were found to have worse birth outcomes than infants with 2 White parents but better than infants with 2 Black parents. However, these studies have several limitations.

First, they didn't examine groups other than Black and White race. Second, paternal information is often missing from natality data, especially for infants of Black mothers.

Although these infants are more likely to have adverse birth outcomes, 10 White parents black baby genetics 13 White parents black baby genetics are often omitted from studies.


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